Guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate, Lithium salt
For research use only!
Shipping: shipped on gel packs
Storage Conditions: store at -20 °C
Short term exposure (up to 1 week cumulative) to ambient temperature possible.
Shelf Life: 12 months after date of delivery
Molecular Formula: C10H17N5O17P4 (free acid)
Molecular Weight: 603.16 g/mol (free acid)
Exact Mass: 602.96 g/mol (free acid)
Purity: ≥ 95 % (HPLC)
Form: solution in water
Color: colorless to slightly yellow
Concentration: 100 mM - 110 mM
pH: 7.5 ±0.5
Spectroscopic Properties: λmax 252 nm, ε 13.6 L mmol-1 cm-1 (Tris-HCl pH 7.5)
(p)ppGpp (collective for ppGpp and pppGpp) is a nucleotide based second messenger and a key regulator of stringent stress response in many bacteria. During nutritional starvation (p)ppGpp initiates the switch from bacterial growth into survival mode. Growth is arrested as (p)ppGpp binds RNA polymerase (RNAP) leading to repressed transcription rate of stable RNA (rRNA, tRNA). Instead, transcription of genes involved in biosynthesis of amino acids is enhanced, leading to prolonged survival.
Related products: pppGpp, #NU-885
 Hauryliuk et al. (2015) Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology. Nature Reviews Microbiology.
 Dalebroux et al. (2012) ppGpp: magic beyond RNA polymerase. Nature Reviews Microbiology 10 (3):203.