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The attachment of a reporter group (label) is often required for the detection and biochemical/cellular characterization of proteins and its binding partners.

Different labeling techniques & types of label such as fluorophores, biotin and luminescent dyes are available for non-radioactive protein labeling, both random and site-directed (N- or C-terminal).

Choose the appropriate labeling strategy (labeling technique & type of label) that fits your final application based on your initial protein source (Tab. 1).

Table 1: Protein Labeling Selection Matrix



Type of Label



FluorophoreBiotin
CLICK functionality
Protein SourcePurified protein Amine
Labeling
Amine
Labeling
Amine
Labeling → Click Chemistry
randomLabeling Position
Thiol
Labeling
Thiol
Labeling → Click Chemistry
Proliferating cells
(Nascent proteins)


Amino acid-based
Metabolic Labeling


Puromycin-based
Metabolic Labeling
site directed
Protein encoding DNA sequence
(Cloning & cell-based expression required)


Thioester-based
Labeling


Protein encoding DNA sequence
(Cloning & cell-free expression required)
dC-Puromycin-based Co-translational Labeling dC-Puromycin-based Co-translational Labeling