Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor
human, recombinant, E. coli
For in vitro use only!
Shipping: shipped at ambient temperature
Storage Conditions: store at -20 °C
avoid freeze/thaw cycles
Shelf Life: 12 months
Molecular Weight: 14 kDa
Accession number: P04141
Accession number: P04141
Purity: > 95 % (SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC)
Solubility: It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized GM-CSF in sterile bidest H2O not less than 100 μg/ml, which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).
Activity: EC50: < 0.1 ng/ml corresponding to a specific activity of 1.11 x 107 Units/mg, determined by the dose-dependant stimulation of the proliferation of human TF-1 cells (human erythroleukemic indicator cell line). GM-CSF was lyophilized against 2 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4.
GM-CSF is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages. GM-CSF receptors shows significant homologies with other receptors for hematopoietic growth factors, including IL2-β, IL-3 (cat.# PR-462), IL-6 (cat.# PR-466 or PR-467), IL-7 (cat.# PR-468), EPO (cat.# PR-402 or PR-403), and the Prolactin receptors. Recombinant Human GM-CSF produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 127 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 14.477 kDa. Recombinant GM-CSF is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Endotoxin: Less than 0.1 ng/μg (IEU/μg) of GM-CSF.
Comalada et al. (2005) Correction: Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-, or IL-3- dependent survival of macrophages, but not proliferation, requires the expression of p21 (Waf1) through the phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase/Akt pathway Eur. J. Immunol. 35:666.
Loizel et al. (2005) Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in porcine circovirus type-2-transfected piglets. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 86:33.
Ha et al. (2005) Role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in preventing apoptosis and improving functional outcome in experimental spinal cord contusion injury. J. Neurosurg. Spine. 2:55.
Yogesha et al. (2005) Interleukin-3 and granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor inhibits tumor necrosis factoralpha -induced osteoclast differentiation by down-regulation of TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression. J. Biol. Chem. 14 [Epub ahead of print].
Lima et al. (2005) A DNA vaccine encoding genetic fusions of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Vaccine 23:1273.
Alenzi (2004) Induction of apoptosis in myeloid progenitors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 61:200.