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   Jena Bioscience meets the scarcity of important Microcystin reference materials
   
Microscopic image (40x) of Microcystis aeruginosa taken from a German freshwater lake

Blooms of cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes and brackish waters are a recurrent phenomenon throughout the world. An excessive growth of several blue green algae often increases the production of inherent toxins such as microcystins (MCs) which cause acute poisonings of fish, birds and mammals, including humans.

Scientists dealing with monitoring programs of fresh water sources and natural product researchers stress the increasing relevance of algae toxins. Jena Bioscience now offers selected toxin reference materials to control water sources as well as dietary supplements based on freshwater algae.

Blooms of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa from freshwater lakes in Germany served as source for our economically priced microcystins. The reference substances will be delivered in quantities of 25 µg dissolved in methanol with guaranteed purity above 95 %.

Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides with two variable amino acids at positions 2 and 4 determining the nomenclature of these toxins (1-letter amino acid code). All of Jena Bioscience's Microcystins have a common L-Arg (R) in position 2, while position 4 is variable (see image and table below).


   
   The following structural variants are available:
   

Product Cat.-No. Amount Price
Microcystin-LR MC-101-25 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 25.30 €
MC-101-100 4 x 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 91.10 €
Microcystin-RR MC-102-25 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 48.90 €
MC-102-100 4 x 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 176.10 €
Microcystin-YR MC-103-25 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 152.40 €
MC-103-100 4 x 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 548.64 €
Microcystin-WR MC-104-25 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 184.30 €
MC-104-100 4 x 1 ml (25 µg/ml) 663.50 €


For more detailed information and for ordering, please visit our website at

www.jenabioscience.com/cms/en/1/catalog/1611/

Selected references:
[1] Van Apeldoorn et al. (2007) Toxins of cyanobacteria. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51:7.
[2] Hiller et al. (2007) Rapid detection of cyanobacterial toxins in precursor ion mode by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom. 42:1238.
[3] Honkanen et al. (1990) Characterization of microcystin-LR, a potent inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein phosphatases. J. Biol. Chem. 256:19401.
[4] Humpage et al. (2000) Microcystins (cyanobacterial toxins) in drinking water enhance the growth of aberrant crypt foci in the mouse colon. J. Toxicol. Env. Health A 61:155.
[5] Ikehara et al. (2009) The effect of structural variation in 21 microcystins on their inhibition of PP2A and the effect of replacing cys269 with glycine. Toxicon 54:539.
[6] Pichardo et al. (2007) Acute and subacute toxic effects produced by microcystin-YR on the fish cell lines RTG-2 and PLHC-1. Toxicol. In Vitro 21:1460.
[7] Wolf et al. (2002) Toxicity assessment of cyanobacterial toxin mixture. Environ. Toxicol. 17:395.
[8] L. Yin, et al. (2005) Microcystin-RR-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in tobacco BY-2 cells. Toxicon 46:507.


   
   

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